Omedrai - Omega 3
Omega3
Omega 3 (DHA + EPA)
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¿Qué son?

 

Los omega 3 son ácidos grasos poliinsaturados que pertenecen al grupo de grasas saludables. Son las llamadas grasas insaturadas.

 

Los Omega 3 son esenciales para el  organismo pero este no los puede fabricar a partir de otras sustancias y hemos de ingerirlo con la dieta, se encuentran en una alta proporción en algunos pescados y mariscos y en general en el pescado azul, así como en algunos vegetales como el lino o las nueces.

 

 

 

Información Científica

 

Alegaciones aprobadas por EFSA (Autoridad Europea de Seguridad Alimentaria)

 

EFSA ha aprobado las siguientes alegaciones o declaraciones de propiedades saludables respecto al EPA y DHA (EFSA, 2009, 2010c):

- Mantenimiento de la función cardiaca normal. La población diana es la población general. Es necesaria la ingesta de 250 mg de EPA y DHA para obtener el efecto declarado.

- Mantenimiento de la presión sanguínea normal. La población diana es la población general. Es necesaria la ingesta de alrededor de 3 g/día de EPA y DHA para obtener el efecto declarado.

- Mantenimiento de las concentraciones normales de triglicéridos. La población diana son los hombres y mujeres adultos. El Panel considera necesaria la ingesta de 2 g/día de EPA y DHA para obtener el efecto declarado. Dicha cantidad puede ser consumida como parte de una dieta equilibrada.

 

Asimismo, respecto al DHA, EFSA también ha aprobado las siguientes declaraciones de propiedades saludables (EFSA, 2010b):

- Mantenimiento de la función cerebral normal. La población diana es la población general. El Panel considera que es necesaria la ingesta de 250 mg de DHA, en una o dos tomas, para obtener el efecto declarado.

- Mantenimiento de la visión normal. La población diana es la población general. El Panel considera que es necesaria la ingesta de 250 mg de DHA, en una o dos tomas, para obtener el efecto declarado.

Función cognitiva

 

El aporte adecuado (250 mg de EPA y DHA) de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga Omega-3 (EPA y DHA) ayuda al buen funcionamiento del cerebro. El DHA es el constituyente mayoritario del tejido cerebral. Los ácidos grasos de cadena larga omega 3 son componentes estructurales de las células nerviosas y por lo tanto, necesarios para el buen desarrollo del cerebro. Es imprescindible en el mantenimiento de las funciones del sistema nervioso.

  • Referencias bibliográficas

     

    1. Gow RV, Vallee-Tourangeau F, Crawford MA, Taylor E, Ghebremeskel K, Bueno AA, Hibbeln JR, Sumich A, Rubia K.Omega-3 fatty acids are inversely related to callous and unemotional traits in adolescent boys with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder. Prostaglandins LeukotEssent Fatty Acids. 2013 Jun;88(6):411-8.

     

    2. Sinn N, Bryan J. Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD. J DevBehavPediatr 2007 Apr,28(2).89-91.

     

    3. Amminger GP, Berger GE, Schafer MR, Klier C, Friedrich MH, Feucht M, 2007. Omega -3 fatty acids supplementation in children with autism: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Biol Psychiatry, 61, 551-553.2

     

    4. Baillie RA, Takada R, Nakamura M, Clarke SD, 1999. Coordinate induction of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and UCP-3 by dietary fish oil: a mechanism for decreased body fat deposition. Prostaglandins LeukotEssent Fatty Acids, 60, 351-356.

     

    5. Beydoun MA, Kaufman JS, Satia JA, Rosamond W, Folsom AR, 2007. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and the risk of cognitive decline in older adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J ClinNutr, 85, 1103-1111.

     

    6. Bourre JM, 2007. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women. Biomed Pharmacother, 61, 105-112.

     

    7. Couet C, Delarue J, Ritz P, Antoine JM, Lamisse F, 1997. Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adults. Int J ObesRelatMetabDisord, 21, 637-643.

     

    8. Das UN, 2006. Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology. Biotechnol J, 1, 420-439.544.

     

    9. Delarue J, Couet C, Cohen R, Brechot JF, Antoine JM, Lamisse F, 1996. Effects of fish oil on metabolic responses to oral fructose and glucose loads in healthy humans. Am J Physiol, 270, E353-362.

     

    10. Delarue J, Labarthe F, Cohen R, 2003. Fish-oil supplementation reduces stimulation of plasma glucose fluxes during exercise in untrained males. Br J Nutr, 90, 777-786.

     

    11. Fickova M, Hubert P, Cremel G, Leray C, 1998. Dietary (n-3) and (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids rapidly modify fatty acid composition and insulin effects in rat adipocytes. J Nutr, 128, 512-519.

     

    12. Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Bugarini R, Fiaschi AI, Cerretani D, Montorfano G, Rizzo AM, Berra B, 2005. Blood profiles, body fat and mood state in healthy subjects on different diets supplemented with Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Eur J ClinInvest, 35, 499-507.

     

    13. Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Migliorini S, Lodi L, 2005. Cognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Invest, 35, 691-699.

     

    14. Freund-Levi Y, Eriksdotter-Jonhagen M, Cederholm T, Basun H, Faxen-Irving G, Garlind A, Vedin I, Vessby B, Wahlund LO, Palmblad J, 2006. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in 174 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: OmegAD study: a randomized double-blind trial. Arch Neurol, 63, 1402-1408.

     

    15. Heude B, Ducimetiere P, Berr C, 2003. Cognitive decline and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes--The EVA Study. Am J ClinNutr, 77, 803-808.

     

    16. Hill AM, Buckley JD, Murphy KJ, Saint DA, Morris AM, Howe PRC, 2005. Combined effects of omega-3 supplementation and regular exercice on body composition and cardiovascular risks factors. Asia Pac J ClinNutr, 14, S57.

     

    17. Huffman DM, Michaelson JL, Thomas T, 2004. Chronic supplementation with fish oil increases fat oxidation during exercise in young men. Nutrition, 7, 48-56.

     

    18. Kalmijn S, van Boxtel MP, Ocke M, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D, Launer LJ, 2004. Dietary intake of fatty acids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle age. Neurology, 62, 275-280.

     

    19. Lim WS, Gammack JK, Van Niekerk J, Dangour AD, 2006. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, CD005379.

     

    20. Madsen L, Rustan AC, Vaagenes H, Berge K, Dyroy E, Berge RK, 1999. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid affect mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in relation to substrate preference. Lipids, 34, 951-963.

     

    21. McNair DM, Lon M, Droppelman LF, 1971. Manual for the profile of mood states. Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego, CA.

     

    22. Mori T A, Bao DQ, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJ, 1999. Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Am J ClinNutr, 70, 817-825.

     

    23. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal N, Schneider J, 2003. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol, 60, 940-946.

     

    24. Pelleymounter MA, Cullen MJ, Baker MB, Hecht R, Winters D, Boone T, Collins F, 1995. Effects of the  obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice. Science, 269, 540-543.

     

    25. Richardson AJ and Montgomery P, 2005. The Oxford-Durham study: a randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics, 115, 1360-1366.

     

    26. Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu CC, Shen WW, 2003. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. EurNeuropsychopharmacol, 13, 267-271.

     

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Función cardiovascular

 

Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados omega-3 actúan sobre el aparato cardiovascular a través de multitud de vías ejerciendo un efecto protector frente al riesgo cardiovascular. Los beneficios están relacionados con la incorporación de EPA y DHA en la membrana de las células del miocardio (corazón).Por lo tanto, el consumo de concentrados de ácidos grasos EPA y DHA tiene un efecto cardiosaludable. Hay numerosos trabajos científicos que así lo demuestran.

  • Referencias bibliográficas

     

    1. Lorente-Cebrián S, Costa AG, Navas-Carretero S, Zabala M, Martínez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases: a review of the evidence.J PhysiolBiochem. 2013 Sep;69(3):633-51. doi: 10.1007/s13105-013-0265-4. Epub 2013 Jun 22.

     

    2. Piñeiro-Corrales G, Lago Rivero N, Culebras-Fernández JM. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention].Nutr Hosp. 2013 Jan-Feb;28(1):1-5. doi: 10.3305/nh.2013.28.1.6312

     

    3. Mozaffarian D, Lemaitre RN, King IB, Song X, Huang H, Sacks FM, Rimm EB, Wang M, SiscovickDS.Plasma phospholipid long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: a cohort study.Ann Intern Med. 2013 Apr 2;158(7):515-25. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-7-201304020-00003.

     

    4. Connor WE, 2000. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clinutr, 71, 171S-175S.

     

    5. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ, 2002. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation, 106, 2747-2757.

     

    6. Mori TA and Woodman RJ, 2006. The independent effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on cardiovascular risk factors in humans. CurrOpinClinNutrMetab Care, 9, 95-104.

     

    7. NNR (Nordic Nutrition Recommendations), 2004. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.

     

    8. Simopoulos AP, Leaf A, Salem N, Jr., 1999. Workshop on the Essentiality of and Recommend ed Dietary Intakes for Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. J Am CollNutr, 18, 487-489.

     

    9. Tolmunen T, 2005. Depression, B vitamins and homocysteine. University of Kuopio, Kuopio [Finland].

     

    10. Virtanen J, 2005. Homokysteiininjafolaatinvaikutussydänjaverisuonitautuienriskiin. University of Kuopio, Kuopio [Finland].

     

    11. vonSchacky C, 2006. A review of omega-3 ethyl esters for cardiovascular prevention and treatment of increased blood triglyceride levels. Vasc Health Risk Manag, 2, 251-262.

     

    12. Voutilainen E,2004. Ravitsemustieteenperusteita-suomalainenruoka. Helsinginyliopisto, Helsinki.

     

    13. Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, Matsuzawa Y, Saito Y, Ishikawa Y, Oikawa S, Sasaki J, Hishida H, Itakura H, Kita T, Kitabatake A, Nakaya N, Sakata T, Shimada K, Shirato K, 2007. Effects of 569eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet, 369, 1090-1098.

     

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Mantenimiento de la presión arterial

 

La tensión arterial es la presión ejercida por la sangre circulante sobre las paredes de los vasos sanguíneos. Una tensión alta por encima de 140 mmHg (sistólica) y/o 9 mmHg (diastólica), puede comprometer la estructura y función de las arterias, siendo uno de los principales factores de riesgo de la enfermedad coronaria.

 

El DHA y el EPA contribuyen a mantener una tensión arterial normal. En los estudios publicados se ha demostrado que la ingesta de EPAy DHA (250-500 mg al día) previene la enfermedad coronaria.

  • Referencias bibliográficas

     

    1. Title 21, Food and Drugs. Chapter I Food and Drug Administration Department of Health and Human Services. Subchapter B Food for Human Consumption Part 101 Food labeling. Code of Federal Regulations (Revised 2008).

     

    2. Abeywardena MY and Head RJ, 2001. Longchain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and blood vessel function. Cardiovasc Res, 52, 361-371.

     

    3. AFSSA (Agencefrançaise de sécurité sanitaire des aliments), The omega 3 fatty acids and the cardiovascular system: nutritional benefits and claims.

     

    4. AHRQ (Agency for Health Care Research and Quality), 2004. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Disease. AHRQ Publication No. 04-E009-2. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment Number 94. 768.

     

    5. Akabas SR and Deckelbaum RJ, 2006. Summary of a workshop on n-3 fatty acids: current status of recommendations and future directions. Am J ClinNutr, 83, 1536S-1538S.

     

    6. Appel LJ, Miller ER, 3rd, Seidler AJ, Whelton PK, 1993. Does supplementation of diet with 'fish oil' reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med, 153, 1429-1438.

     

    7. Baldwin N and Rice R, 2004. Eating long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, as part of a healthy lifestyle, has been shown to help maintain heart health‖. A Generic Health Claim Submission by the Omega-3 Health Claim Consortium to the JHCI.

     

    8. Baro L, Fonolla J, Pena JL, Martinez-Ferez A, Lucena A, Jimenez J, Boza JJ, Lopez-Huertas E, 2003. n-3 Fatty acids plus oleic acid and vitamin supplemented milk consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol, homocysteine and levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in healthy humans. ClinNutr, 22, 175-182.

     

    9. Block R and Pearson TA, 2006. The cardiovascular implications of omega-3 fatty acids. Folia Cardiol, 13, 557-569.

     

    10. BNF (British Nutrtition Foundation), 1999. BNF briefing paper: n-3. Fatty acids and health.

     

    11. Brouwer IA, Zock PL, Wever EF, Hauer RN, Camm AJ, Bocker D, Otto-Terlouw P, Katan MB, Schouten EG, 2003. Rationale and design of a randomised controlled clinical trial on supplemental intake of n-3 fatty acids and incidence of cardiac arrhythmia: SOFA. Eur J ClinNutr, 57, 1323-1330.

     

    12. Brown AA and Hu FB, 2001. Dietary modulation of endothelial function: implications for cardiovascular disease. Am J ClinNutr, 73, 673-686.

     

    13. Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G, 2002. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med, 112, 298-304.

     

    14. Burr ML, Fehily AM, Gilbert JF, Rogers S, Holliday RM, Sweetnam PM, Elwood PC, Deadman NM, 1989. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet, 2, 757-761.

     

    15. Calder PC, 2004. n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored. ClinSci (Lond), 107, 1-11.

     

    16. Carrero JJ, Baro L, Fonolla J, Gonzalez-Santiago M, Martinez-Ferez A, Castillo R, Jimenez J, Boza JJ, Lopez-Huertas E, 2004. Cardiovascular effects of milk enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins E and B6 in volunteers with mild hyperlipidemia. Nutrition, 20, 521-527.

     

    17. Carrero JJ, Lopez-Huertas E, Salmeron LM, Baro L, Ros E, 2005. Daily supplementation with (n-3) PUFAs, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E increases pain-free walking distance and improves risk factors in men with peripheral vascular disease. J Nutr, 135, 1393-1399.

     

    18. Connor WE, 2000. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J ClinNutr, 71, 171S-175S.

     

    19. de Deckere EA, Korver O, Verschuren PM, Katan MB, 1998. Health aspects of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant and marine origin. Eur J ClinNutr, 52, 749-753.

     

    20. Din JN, Newby DE, Flapan AD, 2004. Omega 3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease--fishing for a natural treatment. BMJ, 328, 30-35.

     

    21. Engler MM, Engler MB, Malloy M, Chiu E, Besio D, Paul S, Stuehlinger M, Morrow J, Ridker P, Rifai N, Mietus-Snyder M, 2004. Docosahexaenoic acid restores endothelial function in children with hyperlipidemia: results from the EARLY study. Int J ClinPharmacolTher, 42, 672-679.

     

    22. Expert Panel on Detection Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, 2001. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA, 285, 2486-2497.

     

    23. Fleischhauer FJ, Yan WD, Fischell TA, 1993. Fish oil improves endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in heart transplant recipients. J Am CollCardiol, 21, 982-989. 769

     

    24. Gebauer SK, Psota TL, Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM, 2006. n-3 fatty acid dietary recommendations and food sources to achieve essentiality and cardiovascular benefits. Am J ClinNutr, 83, 1526S-1535S.

     

    25. GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators, 1999. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio dellaSopravvivenzanell'Infartomiocardico. Lancet, 354, 447-455.

     

    26. Goodfellow J, Bellamy MF, Ramsey MW, Jones CJ, Lewis MJ, 2000. Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. J Am CollCardiol, 35, 265-270.

     

    27. Gulesserian T and Widhalm K, 2002. Effect of a rapeseed oil substituting diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia. J Am CollNutr, 21, 103-108.

     

    28. Harris WS, Dujovne CA, Zucker M, Johnson B, 1988. Effects of a low saturated fat, low cholesterol fish oil supplement in hypertriglyceridemic patients. A placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med, 109, 465-470.

     

    29. Harris WS, 1997. n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J ClinNutr, 65, 1645S-1654S.

     

    30. Harris WS and Von Schacky C, 2004. The Omega-3 Index: a new risk factor for death from coronary heart disease? Prev Med, 39, 212-220.

     

    31. He K, Song Y, Daviglus ML, Liu K, Van Horn L, Dyer AR, Greenland P, 2004. Accumulated evidence on fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Circulation, 109, 2705-2711.

     

    32. Health Council of the Netherlands, 2006. Guidelines for a healthy diet 2006. Publication no. 2006/21E.

     

    33. Holub BJ, 2002. Clinical nutrition: 4. Omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular care. CMAJ, 166, 608-615.

     

    34. JHCI (Joint Health Claims Initiative), 2003. Final Technical Report A List of Well Established Nutrient Function Statements.

     

    35. JHCI (Joint Health Claims Initiative), 2005. Final report on the proposed generic health claim "Eating 3g weekly, or 0.45g daily, long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, as part of a healthy lifestyle, helps maintain heart health".

     

    36. Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S, Franch HA, Franklin B, Kris-Etherton P, Harris WS, Howard B, Karanja N, Lefevre M, Rudel L, Sacks F, Van Horn L, Winston M, Wylie-Rosett J, 2006. Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation, 114, 82-96.

     

    37. No authors listed, 2002. Bedeutung und empfehlenswerteHöhe der Zufuhrlangkettiger Omega-3-Fettsäuren - EinKonsensus-Statement des Arbeitskreis Omega-3. Ernährungs-Umschau, 49, 94-98.

     

    38. No authors listed, 2004. Käypähoito-suositus: Dyslipidemiat. Duodecim, 120, 1794-1816.

     

    39. Pearson TA, Bazzarre TL, Daniels SR, Fair JM, Fortmann SP, Franklin BA, Goldstein LB, Hong Y, Mensah GA, Sallis JF, Jr., Smith S, Jr., Stone NJ, Taubert KA, 2003. American Heart Association Guide for Improving Cardiovascular Health at the Community Level: A Statement for Public Health Practitioners, Healthcare Providers, and Health Policy Makers From the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science. Circulation, 107, 645-651.

     

    40. Stanner SA, James S, Foster R, 2005. Cardiovascular Disease: Diet, Nutrition, Emerging Risk Factors, the launch of the BNF Task Force report. Nutrition Bulletin, 30, 392-396.

     

    41. Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Grobbee DE, Donders AR, Kok FJ, 2002. Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. J Hypertens, 20, 1493-1499.

     

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Mantenimiento de las concentraciones de triglicéridos en sangre

 

Un exceso de triglicéridos en sangre y es muy perjudicial ya que es uno de los principales factores de riesgo cardiovascular El DHA y el EPA contribuyen a mantener unos niveles normales de triglicéridos en la sangre. La reducción de los lípidos plasmáticos (especialmente los triglicéridos) generada por el consumo de ácidos grasos omega-3 es uno de los efectos con mayor evidencia tanto en humanos como en animales.

  • Referencias bibliográficas

     

    1. NHPD (Health Products and Food Branch of Health Canada, the Natural Health Products Directorate). Fish Oil Monograph, 2006.

     

    2. Adan Y, Shibata K, Sato M, Ikeda I, Imaizumi K, 1999. Effects of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid metabolism, eicosanoid production, platelet aggregation and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 63, 111-119.

     

    3. Balk E, Chung M, Lichtenstein A, Chew P, Kupelnick B, Lawrence A, DeVine D, Lau J, 2004. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors and intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ), 93, 1-6.

     

    4. Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, Kupelnick B, Chew P, Lau J, 2006. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Atherosclerosis, 189, 19-30.

     

    5. Baro L, Fonolla J, Pena JL, Martinez-Ferez A, Lucena A, Jimenez J, Boza JJ, Lopez-Huertas E, 2003. n-3 fatty acids plus oleic acid and vitamin supplemented milk consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol, homocysteine and levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in healthy humans. ClinNutr, 22, 175-182.

     

    6. Barre DE, 2007. The Role of Consumption of Alpha-Linolenic, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids in Human Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes-A Mini-Review. Journal of Oleo Science, 56, 319-325.

     

    7. Biesalski HK, Fürst P, Kasper H, Kluthe R, Pölert W, Puchstein C, Stählin HB, 1995. Ernährungsmedizin. Georg ThiemeVerlag, Stuttgart.

     

    8. BNF (British Nutrition Foundation), 1999. n-3 fatty acids and health. Nutrition Bulletin, 24, 71-73.

     

    9. BNF (British Nutrition Foundation), 2000. n-3 fatty acids and health. Nutrition Bulletin, 25, 81-84.

    10. Bravo E, Napolitano M, Lopez-Soldado I, Valeri M, Botham KM, Stefanutti C, 2006. Hypercholesterolaemia alters the responses of the plasma lipid profile and inflammatory markers to supplementation of the diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil. Eur J ClinNutr, 36, 788-795.

     

    11. Browning LM, Krebs JD, Moore CS, Mishra GD, O'Connell MA, Jebb SA, 2007. The impact of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on inflammation, insulin sensitivity and CVD risk in a group of overweight women with an inflammatory phenotype. Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism, 9, 70-80.

     

    12. Bryhn M, Hansteen H, Schanche T, Aakre SE, 2006. The bioavailability and pharmacodynamics of different concentrations of omega-3 acid ethyl. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 75, 19-24.

     

    13. Buckley R, Shewring B, Turner R, Yaqoob P, Minihane AM, 2004. Circulating triacylglycerol and apoE levels in response to EPA and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in adult human subjects. Br J Nutr, 92, 477-483.

     

    14. C.E.I.V. (Centre d'Etude et d'Information sur les Vitamines), 2004. Les acidesgras poly-insatures à longue chaineetvotre santé.

     

    15. Calder PC, 2004. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored. Clinical Science, 107, 1-11.

     

    16. CANTOX Health Sciences International, 2007. Heart Health: An Evaluation of the Evidence to Support Health Claims in the European Union.

     

    17. Carrero JJ, Baro L, Fonolla J, Gonzalez-Santiago M, Martinez-Ferez A, Castillo R, Jimenez J, Boza JJ, Lopez-Huertas E, 2004. Cardiovascular effects of milk enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins E and B6 in volunteers with mild hyperlipidemia. Nutrition, 20, 521-527. 584.

     

    18. Carrero JJ, Lopez-Huertas E, Salmeron LM, Baro L, Ros E, 2005. Daily supplementation with (n-3) PUFAs, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E increases pain-free walking distance and improves risk factors in men with peripheral vascular disease. J Nutr, 135, 1393-1399.

     

    19. Chan DC, Watts GF, Mori TA, Barrett PHR, Beilin LJ, Redgrave TG, 2002. Factorial study of the effects of atorvastatin and fish oil on dyslipidaemia in visceral obesity. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 32, 429-436.

     

    20. D-A-CH (Deutsche GesellschaftfürErnährung - ÖsterreichischeGesellschaftfürErnährung - SchweizerischeGesellschaftfürErnährungsforschung - SchweizerischeVereinigungfürErnährung), 2000. Referenzwertefuer die Nährstoffzufuhr. UmschauBrausVerlag, Frankfurt am Main.

     

    21. Dewailly E, Blanchet C, Gingras S, Lemieux S, Holub BJ, 2002. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and n-3 fatty acid status in the adult population of James Bay Cree. Am J ClinNutr, 76, 85-92.

     

    22. Dumas C, Kalonji E, Thomann C, Gnanou JC, 2003. Acidesgras de la familleoméga 3 etsystèmecardiovasculaire: intérêtsnutritionnels et allégations. AFSSA (AgenceFrançaise de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments).

     

    23. Dyerberg J, Eskesen DC, Andersen PW, Astrup A, Buemann B, Christensen JH, Clausen P, Rasmussen BF, Schmidt EB, Tholstrup T, Toft E, Toubro S, Stender S, 2004. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study. Eur J ClinNutr, 58, 1062-1070.

     

    24. Eurodiet, 2000. Eurodiet Core Report. Nutrition & Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe: Science & Policy Implications.

     

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    26. Grimsgaard S, Bonaa KH, Hansen JB, Nordoy A, 1997. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in humans have similar triacylglycerol-lowering effects but divergent effects on serum fatty acids. Am J ClinNutr, 66, 649-659.

     

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    28. Hamazaki K, Itomura M, Huan M, Nishizawa H, Watanabe S, Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Terasawa K, Nakajima S, Terano T, Hata Y, Fujishiro S, 2003. n-3 long-chain FA decrease serum levels of TG and remnant-like particle-cholesterol in humans. Lipids, 38, 353-358.

     

    29. Harris WS, 1997. n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J ClinNutr, 65, S1645-S1654.

     

    30. Hill AM, Buckley JD, Murphy KJ, Howe PRC, 2007. Combining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Am J ClinNutr, 85, 1267-1274.

     

    31. Holub DJ and Holub BJ, 2004. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils and cardiovascular disease. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 263, 217-225.

     

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    33. Hung P, Gu JY, Kaku S, Yunoki S, Ohkura K, Ikeda I, Tachibana H, Sugano M, Yazawa K, Yamada K, 2000. Dietary effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid esters on lipid metabolism and immune parameters in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 64, 2588-2593.

     

    34. IoM (Institute of Medicine), 2002. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. National Academies Press, Washington D.C.

     

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    37. Krebs JD, Browning LM, McLean NK, Rothwell JL, Mishra GD, Moore CS, Jebb SA, 2006. Additive benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight-loss in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight hyperinsulinaemic women. International Journal of Obesity, 30, 1535-1544.

     

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    40. Leigh-Firbank EC, Minihane AM, Leake DS, Wright JW, Murphy MC, Griffin BA, Williams CM, 2002. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oils: differential associations with lipid responses. Br J Nutr, 87, 435-445.

     

    41. Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S, Franch HA, Franklin B, Kris-Etherton P, Harris WS, Howard B, Karanja N, Lefevre M, Rudel L, Sacks F, Van Horn L, Winston M, Wylie-Rosett J, 2006. Summary of American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 26, 2186-2191.

     

    42. Lindgren FT, Adamson GL, Shore VG, Nelson GJ, Schmidt PC, 1991. Effect of a Salmon Diet on the Distribution of Plasma-Lipoproteins and Apolipoproteins in Normolipidemic Adult Men. Lipids, 26, 97-101.

     

    43. Liu ML, Wallmon A, Wallin R, Saldeen T, 2003. Effects of stable fish oil and simvastatin on plasma lipoproteins in patients with hyperlipidemia. Nutrition Research, 23, 1027-1034.

     

    44. Lovegrove JA, Lovegrove SS, Lesauvage SVM, Brady LM, Saini N, Minihane AM, Williams CM, 2004. Moderate fish-oil supplementation reverses low-platelet, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and reduces plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in British Indo-Asians. Am J ClinNutr, 79, 974-982.

     

    45. Maki KC, Van Elswyk ME, McCarthy D, Seeley MA, Veith PE, Hess SP, Ingram KA, Halvorson JJ, Calaguas EM, Davidson MH, 2003. Lipid responses in mildly hypertriglyceridemic men and women to consumption of docosahexaenoic acid-enriched eggs. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 73, 357-368.

     

    46. Maki KC, Van Elswyk ME, McCarthy D, Hess SP, Veith PE, Bell M, Subbaiah P, Davidson MH, 2005. Lipid responses to a dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplement in men and women with below average levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Am CollNutr, 24, 189-199.

     

    47. McKenney JM and Sica D, 2007. Prescription omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64, 595-605.

     

    48. McKenney JM and Sica D, 2007. Role of prescription omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Pharmacotherapy, 27, 715-728.

     

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    51. Okuda N, Ueshima H, Okayama A, Saitoh S, Nakagawa H, Rodriguez BL, Sakata K, Choudhury SR, Curb JD, Stamler J, 2005. Relation of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake to serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol among Japanese men in Japan and Japanese-American men in Hawaii: the INTERLIPID study. Atherosclerosis, 178, 371-379.

     

    52. Panagiotakos DB, Zeimbekis A, Boutziouka V, Economou M, Kourlaba G, Toutouzas P, Polychronopoulos E, 2007. Long-term fish intake is associated with better lipid profile, arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose levels in elderly people from Mediterranean islands (MEDIS epidemiological study). Medical Science Monitor, 13, Cr307-Cr312. 586

     

    53. Roche HM and Gibney MJ, 2000. Effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol metabolism. Am J ClinNutr, 71, 232s-237s.

     

    54. SACN (Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition), 2004. Advice on Fish Consumption. Benefits and Risks.

     

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    58. Stanner S, 2005. Cardiovascular disease: diet, nutrition and emerging risk factors. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

     

    59. Stark KD, Park EJ, Maines VA, Holub BJ, 2000. Effect of a fish-oil concentrate on serum lipids in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J ClinNutr, 72, 389-394.

     

    60. Stark KD and Holub BJ, 2004. Differential eicosapentaenoic acid elevations and altered cardiovascular disease risk factor responses after supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy. Am J ClinNutr, 79, 765-773.

     

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    62. Thomas TR, Smith BK, Donahue OM, Altena TS, James-Kracke M, Sun GY, 2004. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and exercise on low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein subfractions. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 53, 749-754.

     

    63. Undeland I, Ellegard L, Sandberg AS, 2004. Fish and cardiovascular health. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition, 48, 119-130.

     

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    65. Vanier P, Saumon, http://www.passeportsante.net/fr/Nutrition/EncyclopedieAliments/Fiche.aspx?doc=saumon_nu.

     

    66. Visioli F, Rise P, Plasmati E, Pazzucconi F, Sirtori CR, Galli C, 2000. Very low intakes of N-3 fatty acids incorporated into bovine milk reduce plasma triacylglycerol and increase HDL-cholesterol concentrations in healthy subjects. Pharmacological Research, 41, 571-576.

     

    67. Weber P and Raederstorff D, 2000. Triglyceride-lowering effect of omega-3 LC-polyunsaturated fatty acids - a review. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 10, 28-37.

     

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    69. Wijendran V and Hayes KC, 2004. Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid balance and cardiovascular health. Annu Rev Nutr, 24, 597-615.

     

    70. Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJ, 2002. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertension. Am J ClinNutr, 76, 1007-1015.

     

    71. Wu WH, Lu SC, Wang TF, Jou HJ, Wang TA, 2006. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism, and in vivo oxidative stress in postmenopausal vegetarian women. Eur J ClinNutr, 60, 386-392. 587.

     

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Colesterol

 

Un nivel elevado de LDL-colesterol se considera un factor de riesgo para las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Los efectos de los ácidos grasos omega-3 (principalmente EPA y DHA) sobre los lípidos séricos y lipoproteínas han sido estudiados en numerosos estudios clínicos.

EPA y DHA incrementan ligeramente las concentraciones de HDL-colesterol sin afectar a las concentraciones de LDL-colesterol en sujetos normales.

 

Las lipoproteínas de alta densidad HDL (high-densitylipoproteins) se encargan de recolectar el colesterol y transportarlo desde los tejidos hasta el hígado, se las considera el “factor protector”. Por otro lado, las lipoproteínas de baja densidad LDL (low-densitylipoproteins), consideradas como “factor de riesgo” transportan el colesterol desde el hígado a los tejidos periféricos, incluyendo las arterias.

  • Referencias bibliográficas

     

    1. Abeywardena MY and Head RJ, 2001. Longchain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and blood vessel function. Cardiovasc Res, 52, 361-371.

     

    2. Albert CM, Hennekens CH, O'Donnell CJ, Ajani UA, Carey VJ, Willett WC, Ruskin JN, Manson JE, 1998. Fishconsumption and risk of sudden cardiac death. JAMA, 279, 23-28.

     

    3. Ayalew-Pervanchon A, Rousseau D, Moreau D, Assayag P, Weill P, Grynberg A, 2007. Long-term effect of dietary {alpha}-linolenic acid or decosahexaenoic acid on incorporation of decosahexaenoic acid in membranes and its influence on rat heart in vivo. Am J PhysiolHeartCircPhysiol, 293, H2296-2304.

     

    4. Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, Kupelnick B, Chew P, Lau J, 2006. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Atherosclerosis, 189, 19-30.

     

    5. Brouwer IA, Zock PL, Camm AJ, Bocker D, Hauer RN, Wever EF, Dullemeijer C, Ronden JE, Katan MB, Lubinski A, Buschler H, Schouten EG, 2006. Effect of fish oil on ventricular tachyarrhythmia and death in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: the Study on Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Ventricular Arrhythmia (SOFA) randomized trial. JAMA, 295, 2613-2619.

     

    6. Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G, 2002. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med, 112, 298-304.

     

    7. Connor WE, 2000. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J ClinNutr, 71, 171S-175S.

    8. De Lorgeril M and Salen P, 2004. Use and misuse of dietary fatty acids for the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease. ReprodNutrDev, 44, 283-288.

     

    9. Din JN, Newby DE, Flapan AD, 2004. Omega 3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease--fishing for a natural treatment. BMJ, 328, 30-35.

     

    10. Erkkila AT, Matthan NR, Herrington DM, Lichtenstein AH, 2006. Higher plasma docosahexaenoic acid is associated with reduced progression of coronary atherosclerosis in women with CAD. J Lipid Res, 47, 2814-2819.

     

    11. Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Grobbee DE, Donders AR, Kok FJ, 2002. Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. J Hypertens, 20, 1493-1499. 555.

     

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    13. Hamer M and Steptoe A, 2006. Influence of specific nutrients on progression of atherosclerosis, vascular function, haemostasis and inflammation in coronary heart disease patients: a systematic review. Br J Nutr, 95, 849-859.

     

    14. Harper CR and Jacobson TA, 2001. The fats of life: the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of coronary heart disease. ArchInternMed, 161, 2185-2192.

     

    15. Harris WS, 1997. n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J ClinNutr, 65, 1645S-1654S.

     

    16. Harris WS, 2001. Omega-3 long-chain PUFA and triglyceride lowering: minimum effective intakes. EurHeart J Suppl, 3, D59-61.

     

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    18. Howe PR, 1997. Dietary fats and hypertension. Focus on fish oil. Ann NY AcadSci, 827, 339-352.

     

    19. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Wolk A, Colditz GA, Hennekens CH, Willett WC, 1999. Dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid and risk of fatal ischemic heart disease among women. Am J ClinNutr, 69, 890-897.

     

    20. Jacobson TA, Glickstein SB, Rowe JD, Soni PN. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids: a review. J ClinLipidol. 2012 Jan-Feb;6(1):5-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2011.10.018.

     

    21. Kelley DS, Siegel D, Vemuri M, Mackey BE, 2007. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation Reduces Plasma Concentrations of Atherogenic Lipids in Hypertriglyceridemic Men1-3. FASEB J, 21, A338.

     

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    23. Lefevre M, Kris-Etherton PM, Zhao G, Tracy RP, 2004. Dietary fatty acids, hemostasis, and cardiovascular disease risk. J Am DietAssoc, 104, 410-419, 492.

     

    24. McLennan PL, 2001. Myocardial membrane fatty acids and the antiarrhythmic actions of dietary fish oil in animal models. Lipids, 36, S111-114.

     

    25. Mori TA and Beilin LJ, 2001. Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, blood lipids and cardiovascular risk reduction. CurrOpinLipidol, 12, 11-17.

     

    26. Mozaffarian D, Geelen A, Brouwer IA, Geleijnse JM, Zock PL, Katan MB, 2005. Effect of fish oil on heart rate in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Circulation, 112, 1945-1952.

     

    27. Murphy KJ, Meyer BJ, Mori TA, Burke V, Mansour J, Patch CS, Tapsell LC, Noakes M, Clifton PA, Barden A, Puddey IB, Beilin LJ, Howe PR, 2007. Impact of foods enriched with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on erythrocyte n-3 levels and cardiovascular risk factors. Br J Nutr, 97, 749-757.

     

    28. Nestel P, 2001. Fish oil fatty acids beneficially modulate vascular function. World Rev Nutr Diet, 88, 86-89. WeintraubH.Atherosclerosis. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: Management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.2013 Oct;230(2):381-9.

     

    29. Nordoy A, Marchioli R, Arnesen H, Videbaek J, 2001. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases. Lipids, 36, S127-129. Nordoy A, 2002. Statins and omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of dyslipidemia and coronary heart disease. Minerva Med, 93, 357-363. 89 Renaud S and Lanzmann-Petithory D, 2002. Dietary fats and coronary heart disease pathogenesis. CurrAtherosclerRep, 4, 419-424.

     

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    31. Shah AP, IchiujiAM, Han JK, Traina M, El-Bialy A, Meymandi SK, Wachsner RY, 2007. Cardiovascular and endothelial effects of fish oil supplementation in healthy volunteers. J CardiovascPharmacolTher, 12, 213-219.

     

    32. Schwellenbach LJ, Olson KL, McConnell KJ, Stolcpart RS, Nash JD, Merenich JA, 2006. The triglyceride-lowering effects of a modest dose of docosahexaenoic acid alone versus in combination with low dose eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with coronary artery disease and elevated triglycerides. J Am CollNutr, 25, 480-485.

     

    33. Shahidi F and Miraliakbari H, 2004. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in health and disease: Part 1--cardiovascular disease and cancer. J MedFood, 7, 387-401.

     

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    35. Theobald HE, Goodall AH, Sattar N, Talbot DC, Chowienczyk PJ, Sanders TA, 2007. Low-dose docosahexaenoic acid lowers diastolic blood pressure in middle-aged men and women. J Nutr, 137, 973-978.

     

    36. Vericel E, Calzada C, Chapuy P, Lagarde M, 1999. The influence of low intake of n-3 fatty acids on platelets in elderly people. Atherosclerosis, 147, 187-192.

     

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    38. Zhao G, Etherton TD, Martin KR, West SG, Gillies PJ, Kris-Etherton PM, 2004. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid reduces inflammatory and lipid cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr, 134, 2991-2997. 6

     

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Infertilidad masculina

 

Los ácidos grasos omega-3 que se encuentran en algunos alimentos producen importantes beneficios para la salud,  la administración de suplementos de omega-3 tiene una acción antioxidante  en el fluido seminal humano, aumentando el número de espermatozoides y mejorando la morfología y  motilidad de los mismos. Un gran número  de hombres infértiles con oligoastenoteratozoospermia idiopática podría mejorar su infertilidad de causa idiopática con la administración de acidos grasos omega 3.

  • Referencias bibliográficas

     

    1. Mohammad Reza Safarinejad and Shiva Safarinejad, The roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in idiopathic male infertility Volume 14, Issue 4 (July 2012) 14, 514–515;

 

Inflamación / Artritis reumatoide

 

Cuando se administra un antiinflamatorio junto con un Omega 3, la dosis diaria de antiinflamatorio para controlar el dolor y la inflamación es menor que cuando sólo se administra un antiinflamatorio.

 

Por tanto los Omega 3 ayudan a reducir  la dosis de AINE’s  en los procesos inflamatorios ya que existen evidencia de que  disminuyen el dolor. Se piensa que la  DHA y EPA (que contienen los omega 3) tiene acción antiinflamatoria.

 

Esto es especialmente importante en patologías crónicas donde los pacientes tienen que tomar antiinflamatorios  todos los días durante periodos muy largos y con los efectos adversos que esto conlleva.

  • Referencias bibliográficas

     

    1. Norling LV1, Perretti M The role of omega-3 derived resolvins in arthritis Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2013 Jun;13(3):476-81.

     

    2. Calder PCr Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Br nutrition or pharmacology J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Mar;75(3):645-62.

     

    3. Dzielska-Olczak M1, Nowak JZ. Antiinflammatory therapy in ostheoarthritis including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2012 May;32(191):329-34.

     

    4. Yates CM1, Calder PC2, Ed Rainger G3. Pharmacology and therapeutics of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic inflammatory disease. Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Mar;141(3):272-82. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.10.010. Epub 2013 Nov 4.

     

    5. Torres-Guzman AM, Morado-Urbina CE, Alvarado-Vazquez PA, Acosta-Gonzalez Chronic oral or intraarticular administration of docosahexaenoic acid reduces ociception and knee edema and improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced knee arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014 Mar 10;16(2):R64.

     

    6.  Lee YH1, Bae SC, Song GG. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis Arch Med Res. 2012 Jul;43(5):356-62.

     

    7. Siriwardhana N1, Kalupahana NS, Moustaid-Moussa N. Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acidAdv Food Nutr Res. 2012;65:211-22.

     

     

     

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Enlaces de Interes

 

http://www.expertomega3.es/omega3.asp

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